Marketing: what is it? Its types and everything you need to know

Marketing: what is it? Its types and everything you need to know! Marketing It is the responsibility of management to create and deliver value for público of the gut, increasing the performance of a brand. Their strategies combine art and science to satisfy the unmet needs and want of the market, leading companies to grow and increase sales.

See in this article:

  • Marketing — Meaning and Objectives
  • A brief history of marketing
  • The pillars of marketing
  • Different types of marketing
  • More Marketing Articles

Marketing — Meaning and Objectives

The word marketing is English and is starting to be used in Portuguese without translation, unlike other business administration skills. The literal translation derives from “mercadologia”, which says a lot about the term. Market means the market, so marketing can be understood as the use of the market or the development of the market.

Marketing Definitions Dictionary defines the term as a set of 4 P’s strategies (product, price, square, and promotion) to meet the needs of a target audience. The development of these strategies would eventually increase the acceptance of a product or service, leading the responsible company to increase its revenues and profits.

Is marketing used to sell more?

If you put business processes in a broader marketing perspective, this question can make sense. But this is not always true. There are examples of companies that position themselves as luxury companies and have done bad business by abandoning a pricing strategy aligned with that positioning in order to sell more.


If you look at this phrase it can make all the sense in the world. Think of a business that doesn’t develop a marketing strategy. sales manager you have to win each sale in the “arm”, running behind, convincing potential customers. Already, a company that develops well-designed marketing strategies attracts ready-to-buy customers without major proactive efforts.

In my opinion, the role of current marketing is to add perceived value to a brand, making it more and more integrated into people’s daily lives. What was once the target audience is becoming a connected tribe, exchanging information and trends via networks. People who are not part of it want to do it. Nowadays, products and services are fleeting. Marks no.

A brief history of marketing

It is very common to think of marketing as something common, inherent in globalization, especially with the internet and digital marketing. But the truth is, as soon as people seemed willing to engage in commercial or political activities, commercialization began, even informally.

There are those who say, for example, that the way Julius Caesar controlled the masses, with a lot of communications about his campaigns and the speeches of opponents aloud in a public square, was one of the precursor forms of marketing.

Here are some historical landmarks that show the origin and evolution of marketing as a formal strategy throughout history:

  • 1450 — Gutenberg invented the printing press — allowed the printing of the first advertisements
  • 1605 — Relation Aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien- German, this newspaper is recognized by many as the first and has come to inaugurate a print media format that lasts until today
  • 1663 — Erbauliche Months-Unterredungen- the first magazine appears, also in Germany
  • 1839 — The practice of preaching posters with advertisements on properties in England was banned due to the exorbitant circulation of the practice. Outdoor spaces have been created to circumvent this ban
  • 1867 — Old outdoor rental record
  • 1920 — After military use, the radio began to broadcast entertainment and news broadcasts
  • 1941 — First television advertisement
  • The decade of 70 — Beginning of use of the term “telemarketing”
  • At the end of the 20th century, the Internet and mobile phones, evolution became exponential

The pillars of marketing

There is a concept created a long time ago by teacher Jérôme McCarthy, disseminated by Philip Kotler, which remains quite common. These are the 4 P’s marketing: price, place, product, and promotion. We have a full article on 4 Ps Marketing, but I’ll talk a little bit about each of them for your understanding.


Every business sells something. The aim here is to understand which attributes valued by the public must be developed and transmitted through the product and the experience of its use.


Many people consider the price of a product to be a financial attribute. But the price of a business is part of its marketing planning. The more the company seeks a differentiating positioning, but the price can be differentiated. If a company is equal to its competitors, so should its price be. The greater the perception of value, the more you can charge.


Each marketing strategy should encompass a set of places and channels in which the audience can access the products or services and connect with the brand. Examples of squares are websites, physical stores, social media. Each of them should have its own strategy but aligned with the overall marketing goals of the business.


Promotion is about knowing how the messages the company intends to spread will be brought into contact with the public. It encompasses the communication strategy and the brand personality.

The most interesting is that we can often notice the crossing between the pillars. There are companies that differ in promotion strategies in different squares. Pricing strategies can vary too, and up to experience in using products and services.

Different types of marketing

With the advent of the internet and digital marketing, there is a lot of confusion between types of marketing which are groups of specific strategies, and types which are just groupings of channels. Below I have put together some common terms, related to these types, used in full marketing and I’ll tell you a bit about them.


Branding is a kind of strategic planning in the marketing world. It is the skill that will guide all other actions, online or offline. The brand translation is branding, so branding can be understood as something akin to “working the brand” or “developing the brand”.

In a brand strategy project, the company will define its positioning, the brand’s goal and promise, the people it wants to reach, and how it will disseminate its attributes and values ​​in its user experience. The objective is to generate the brand’s platform, a sort of guide that the company must follow in its strategies and on a daily basis, to remain strong in terms of image.

Market research

Many people underestimate the completeness of market research. They believe it is just a matter of collecting questionnaires and applying them to understand what people think about a product. This is just an example of quantitative research, in which one seeks to statistically quantify opinions. Research can also take the qualitative form, which focuses more on the subjective aspect by seeking out ideas from individual experiences.

Market research is essential to many business decisions. It is impossible to imagine, for example, a branding project that does not start with a lot of research. How to define the personality of the brand and its objectives without listening to those most interested?

We recommend that, before any marketing action, at least the simplest form of qualitative research be carried out. Chat with customers!

Digital marketing

Digital marketing is a collection of channels and strategies in the online environment. However, in an integrated world, the digital market must follow the marketing guidelines as a whole. The company will not have two different images in the online and offline environment.

We’ve done a more comprehensive article, explaining the types of digital marketing, but I’ll quickly explain some of the keys below:

SEM Search Engine Marketing (search engine marketing)

This is about optimizing content or buying media to print text ads in search results. SEM includes famous strategies as illustrated below:

  • SEO — Search Engine Optimization -set of methods to optimize the pages of the site so that they appear organically well placed in the search results.
  • Sponsored Links -buy keywords that potential customers are looking for on an auction system to appear at the top of searches. The most well-known platforms for buying media in search engines are Google Adwords or Bing Ads.

SMM — Social Media Marketing

Develop brand image by managing company or product profiles within key social networks, such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, etc.

Email Marketing

Creation of lists and relationships with customers and interested audiences by sending content and offers by email.

Outbound Marketing and Direct Marketing

This format includes all direct sales actions without recourse to intermediaries or indirect language. It can be performed in person, through a point of sale, or remotely via email, links, direct mail, text messages, and flyers, among others.

Inbound Marketing

Unlike Outbound, Inbound Marketing reverses the logic of selling. Thanks to techniques of content production, data acquisition, and relationships, the company that practices it intends to attract the customer itself. You might have seen ads offering free e-books on Facebook, for example.

When registering to download, you will notice that you have to fill in some data beforehand. From this data, along with the overall knowledge of the company analyzing other customers, you will receive a series of relevant content for you. The objective of the company in this strategy is to make you aware that it is a reference in the matter. When you want to test the product, you will look for it and not the other way around.

CRM and relationship marketing

The cost of winning a new customer is always greater than the cost of maintaining an existing customer. This is the main premise of relationship marketing and CRM — Customer Relationship Management (Customer Relationship Management). Therefore, companies focus only on direct advertising on television or in print media.

But that time has changed. Now people are talking about products and services and giving their opinion on social media. However, the number of companies offering the same products and services is increasing. How to differentiate yourself? Create incredible relationships with your customers. Team-wide retention actions, personalized service as a weapon and bonuses, and benefits for long-term or high-income customers are examples of CRM Actions.

Content Marketing

Content marketing is about engaging your audience through the production of relevant content. Content can be delivered in different formats — text, video, podcast, eBook, presentation — and delivered through different channels — email, social media, blog, etc.

The best way to start producing content is to research with the target audience their struggles, dreams, and influences. Then, find out which are the most consumed media to define the format and, hands down! It’s time to produce the content.

Many companies make the mistake of outsourcing content production without devoting much attention to it, believing it to be an SEO strategy. Content will not thrive in Google searches if it is not very relevant to certain audiences. In particular, I believe that good content must be authorized and respect the brand personality and the guidelines chosen as part of the brand project.

Guerrilla Marketing and Viral Marketing

The main idea of guerrilla or viral marketing is to dramatically increase the impact on customers with a low investment through creativity. With the advent of social media, small, attention-grabbing initiatives can be shared by everyone. We call ourselves virilization with this phenomenon.

A recent example has been the “discussion” in networks around Ovaltine milkshake in which Bob, Mc Donald, Burger King, Giraffa, and even Philips. Nubank gained a lot of spontaneous media, including in the big chains, because sent a Pikachu to a customer who mentioned the presence of Pokemon Go.

If you venture into guerrilla marketing, beware of the hype. Many brands are trying to ride a trendy wave to go viral and the shot backfires, generating negative brand exposure.

Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing is the process by which a business recruits interested in selling its products or services. To motivate them to sell, he creates a compensation and bonus structure. Usually, for this process to work, the bonus margins have to be pretty good. Otherwise, they won’t justify any affiliate sales efforts.

Another important point is that the chosen affiliates already have some type of audience, so these sales happen naturally. Typically, the best affiliate profile is one that has an audience, through content sites, mailing lists, social media, but doesn’t have a product to monetize its channels.

Growth hacking

The translation of (Growth Hacking) to the letter would be similar to “Macetando o Crescimento”. And that’s exactly what the methodology preaches. Instead of making big plans and advertising, the growth hack preaches through small multi-channel tests and lots of results analysis.

This procedure should be repeated until the user can have fully mature advertising channels.

Expertise Marketing

Marketing or sensory experience focuses on brand interactions with the user. Every purchase has a process of research, consideration, and decision by customers. After the purchase, there is the use of the experience of the product or service. The development of the marketing experience begins with the complete mapping of this process. From there, the brand’s points of contact with customers should be investigated and improvements tested.

By buying/using their customers, they made some important discoveries. For example, the aircraft safety regulations overview video is something all companies have done the same. He did not arouse any emotion among his clients.

Personal Marketing

As the name suggests, it is about the application of marketing strategies on a personal level. The ideal strategies will depend on the goals pursued by the person. In this case, for this to work, one must first study the channels that the chosen audience frequents. In addition to testing what they like to consume in terms of content until they hit the hand.