Looking back on the transition of Windows with images — from “Windows 1.0” to “10”

Looking back on the transition of Windows with images — from “Windows 1.0” to “10” Introducing a number of major releases that have colored the history of “Windows” over 30 years with images.

Windows 1.0

(Released November 20, 1985)

Windows (originally codenamed “Interface Manager”) was announced by Bill Gates in 1983 but began shipping on November 20, 1985. That’s it. The first version was the front end of Microsoft’s command-line “Disk Operating System” (DOS).

“Windows 1.0” could only display windows in tiles, but desktop features such as “MS-DOS Executive” file manager and “Calendar” “Cardfile” “Notepad” “Terminal” “Calculator” “Clock” Was equipped with. Utilities included “RAMDrive”, which manages memory cards that exceed the 640Kbyte memory limit of PCs, “Clipboard”, and “Print Spooler”. The game “Reversi” was also available. Windows 1.0 included “Windows Write” and “Windows Paint,” and sold for $ 99.

Windows 2.0

(Released December 9, 1987)

Starting in this version, windows can be overlaid and 16-color VGA graphics are supported. The “Control Panel” and the “Program Information File” (PIF), which contains configuration information for running DOS applications on Windows, also appeared for the first time in this version. Windows 2.0 was also the first Windows platform to support Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel applications.

Like Windows 1.0, Windows 2.0 could run on a dual floppy drive PC without a hard disk. Windows 2.0 uses a real-mode memory model, with a memory access limit of 1 Mbyte.

It was sued by Apple in 1988 for having multiple “Mac” -like features, such as overlapping windows, but was eventually ruled in favor of Microsoft. Looking back on the transition of Windows with images — from “Windows 1.0” to “10”

Windows 3.0

(Released May 22, 1990)

The first widespread version of Windows, Windows 3.0, has undergone significant user interface changes and memory management capabilities for the Intel 80286 and Intel 80386 processors. Can now be used more effectively.

“Program Manager” and “File Manager” first appeared, and also included a redesigned Control Panel and “Solitaire” (which are still an integral part of Windows). Windows 3.0 supports 256-color VGA, which makes it look better overall.

Windows NT 3.1

(Released July 27, 1993)

Windows NT was born out of the wreckage of a failed Microsoft-IBM “OS / 2” partnership. Under the direction of former Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) software engineer Dave Cutler, a fully 32-bit preemptive multitasking with a hybrid kernel and a layer of hardware abstraction that facilitates porting between processor platforms. It was built from scratch as a multi-threaded, multi-process, multi-user OS.

Initially developed for the “Intel i860” (the name Windows NT comes from the processor’s Codename “N-Ten”), but with a marketing-led fix, NT became “ It was changed to an acronym for “New Technology”. NT supported many CPU architectures such as the “IA-32” version, “x86–64” version, “Alpha” version, “MIPS” version, “PowerPC” version, ARM version, “Itanium” version, etc. The NT codebase is still the foundation of the current generation of Windows operating systems.

Windows 95

(Released August 24, 1995)

“Windows 95”, which was released after aggressive marketing, including the song “Start Me Up” by The Rolling Stones, is a 32-bit / 16-bit hybrid OS for consumers. It had the latest features such as a revamped user interface, plug-and-play automatic device detection, and configuration.

In the Windows 95 UI, the Start button and menu (which is why Marketing used Start Me Up), the taskbar and system tray (or notification area), the window maximize, minimize, and close buttons, etc., The features that have been used for many years have appeared for the first time. The startup sound for Windows 95 was by Brian Eno, and ironically, it was composed on a “Mac.”

Windows NT 4.0

(Released August 24, 1996)

First “Windows NT 4.0 Workstation” and “Windows NT 4.0 Server” were released, then “Windows NT 4.0 Server, Enterprise Edition” in 1997 and “Windows NT 4.0 Server, Enterprise Edition” in 1998. Each release of Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server Edition is Windows NT 4.0, which adds the Windows 95 user interface to the full 32-bit business NT OS.

Invisible to the user, NT 4.0 has undergone various architectural improvements. In particular, the move of “Graphics Device Interface” (GDI) to kernel mode has significantly improved performance from “Windows NT 3.5x”. However, this also required updates to the graphics and printer drivers. NT 4.0 was also the first Windows version to support the “DirectX” multimedia API. Looking back on the transition of Windows with images — from “Windows 1.0” to “10”

Windows 98

(Released June 25, 1998)

“Windows 98” was even more consumer-friendlier than its predecessor, the Windows 95. Through the bundled “Internet Explorer 4” “Windows Desktop Update”, the quick launch toolbar and “Active Desktop”, the ability to click the toolbar icon, to minimize the window, the “Windows Explorer” back and forward buttons, Various user interface related enhancements such as the address bar have been incorporated.

USB support, which first appeared in Windows 95 OSR 2.1 in April 1997, has been significantly enhanced in Windows 98 to include hubs, scanners, mice, keyboards, and joysticks, but modems and printers. The storage device was unavailable.

Windows 2000 Professional

(Released February 17, 2000)

“Windows 2000 Professional” built on the code base of Windows NT 4.0 and aimed at replacing both NT 4.0 and Windows 98 (Microsoft failed) (Although it was decided to release “Windows Me” later) brought significant improvements such as plug-and-play with full support for ACPI and WDM, and many features of the Windows 98/98 SE product series.

New features in all Windows 2000 editions include “NTFS 3.0”, “Encrypting File System” (EFS), “Logical Disk Manager”, and “Address” for LDAP / “Active Directory”. Includes Book (address book) and Microsoft Management Console (MMC: Microsoft Management Console). “Windows File Protection” (WFP) was a feature that prevented unauthorized programs from making changes to important system files.

Windows Me

(Released September 14, 2000)

Millennium Edition (Me) was the last product in the DOS-based “Windows 9x” series.

Unlike Windows 95 and 98, Me didn’t support real-mode DOS, but it did have a convenient “System Restore” feature that allowed you to restore your system to where it was when it was stable. .. That said, Windows Me was released in a hurry, so it was notorious for being buggy and crashing frequently. It was quickly replaced by the NT-based Windows XP, which has much higher performance than Me.

The minimum system requirements for Windows Me were a 150MHz “Pentium” processor (300MHz recommended), 32 MB RAM (64 MB recommended), and 320 MB hard disk space (2GB recommended). The maximum amount of RAM can be recognized as 1.5 GB.

Windows XP

(Released October 25, 2001)

NT-based Windows XP is the successor to Windows 2000 for business and Windows Me for consumers, initially with “Windows XP Professional” and “Windows XP Home Edition.” It was. After several “service packs”, XP (representing “eXPerience”) has become one of the most successful Windows releases in Microsoft’s history. This long-lived OS support extension finally ended on April 8, 2014. It was an unusual length of 12 and a half years since its release.

The XP user interface has been improved with a new two-column Start menu, taskbar binding support, taskbar locking, and more, all displayed in the new default visual style “Luna”. It was.

Windows Server 2003

(Released April 24, 2003) Windows Server 2003,

The server version of Windows XP is available in “Windows Server 2003 Web Edition,” “Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition,” “Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition,” and “Windows Server 2003 Datacenter.” “Edition” was released and took over each edition of “Windows Server 2000”.

Important new features include Active Directory enhancements, the Manage Your Server tool for managing server roles, IIS web server version 6.0, and Group Policy processing and management capabilities. Includes improvements, backup and restore systems, improved disk management, and enhanced scripting and command-line tools.

Windows Vista

(Released January 30, 2007)

“Windows Vista” went through a complicated development process and was released later than planned. And the reputation of a poorly-designed Windows release hasn’t changed.

The main complaints were security features, digital rights management, hardware requirements and performance, and software compatibility.

After starting development based on the XP code base and stumbling, “Longhorn” (Vista development Codename) was built on “Windows Server 2003 SP1” and abandoned important features such as “WinFS”. .. Despite a large beta test program, Vista’s general launch wasn’t in time for the important Christmas season of 2006, when many people buy PCs.

Features included in Vista include the “Aero” interface (such as visual effects such as transparent windows) and the redesigned Start menu. Looking back on the transition of Windows with images — from “Windows 1.0” to “10”

Windows Server 2008

(Released on February 27, 2008)

Windows Server 2008, which was built on the same code base as Windows Vista, includes “Network Access Protection” (NAP), “Server Core”, and “PowerShell”. It included important new features such as “Read-Only Domain Controller”. Existing components such as IIS, Terminal Services, and Server Message Block (SMB) file-sharing protocols have also been completely overhauled.

NAP checks whether the PC connected to the network complies with the IT policy, and if not, takes appropriate measures. Server Core installs only a minimal GUI and some server roles to minimize RAM and patching requirements.

Windows 7

(Released October 22, 2009)

“Windows 7” is an operating system that is widely considered to be what Vista should be. Windows 7 quickly broke into the market share of Vista and XP.

The biggest feature of the new interface is the redesigned taskbar, which includes a translucent Aero visual effect, a thumbnail preview that shows the current state of the content, a “Jump List” that lists recently opened files, and an open list. It has a function such as “Aero Peek” that minimizes the application window and displays the desktop.

Other important improvements include the new Windows Media Player 12 for Internet streaming, the convenient Device Stage for managing peripherals in one place, and the User Account Control (UAC). There were display frequency, faster indexing for native search, improved touch functionality, and a virtual “XP Mode” for running legacy applications.

Windows Server 2012

(Released on September 4, 2012)

Windows Server 2012 has been released in four editions: “Foundation”, “Essentials”, “Standard”, and “Datacenter”. With significantly enhanced virtualization, storage, networking, and automation capabilities, the OS not only upgrades traditional files/prints/applications/web servers but also works with products such as System Center and Windows Azure. It was also positioned as an OS that realizes private clouds, hybrid clouds, and public clouds.

It can be installed either in the command line “Server Core” mode, in the Windows 8 graphical interface (formerly known as “Metro”), or in hybrid mode with a reduced GUI.

“Server Manager” was the main GUI element. Meanwhile, PowerShell has a number of cmdlets for managing in Server Core mode.

Windows 8

(Released October 25, 2012)

Windows 8 had three 32-bit / 64-bit (x86) editions (“Windows 8”, “Windows 8 Pro”, and “Windows 8 Enterprise”). In addition, a fourth edition, “Windows RT,” has been released for ARM-based systems. The Enterprise edition was only available to Software Assurance (SA) customers and had a “Windows To Go” feature that allowed them to create secure bootable USB flash drives. Pro and Enterprise, which can join Active Directory domains, were business editions.

Microsoft’s main focus on Windows 8 was to support touch screen devices (such as tablets and hybrids of laptops and tablets). The way to do that is with a flat tile-based interface, formerly known as Metro.

The old Windows 7-like desktop was left behind (the Start button was abolished), but what appeared after the system booted was a new-looking Start screen.

Windows 8.1

(Released October 17, 2013)

Windows 8.1 is part of Microsoft’s update, codenamed “Blue,” and the one that attracted the most attention was the desktop that many users wanted. It was a partial resurgence of the Start button on the taskbar. But in reality, it was a visual button to access, the more customizable Start screen, unlike the traditional Start button.

You can also access the desktop directly when you log in, or you can set the desktop’s Start button or Windows key to access the Apps page instead of the Start screen. Windows 8.1, which is effectively a service pack for Windows 8, can be downloaded for free from the Windows Store.

Other new features in Windows 8.1 include enhanced search capabilities, more bundled Windows Store apps, the ability to view up to four apps side-by-side, enhanced SkyDrive integration, and redesigned Windows. There was a store and so on.

Windows 10

(Released July 29, 2015)

Windows 10 was released to the general public on July 29, 2015. Windows 10 is widely perceived as a Windows release that “fixes” Windows 8.x, whose Modern / Desktop UI was unpopular. It has an expandable Start menu that includes “Live Tile,” which is full-screen by default on touch-enabled devices. The aim of Windows 10 is to make a “universal” app that displays the appropriate UI according to the type of device an integrated OS that runs on a wide variety of platforms.

New features include FIDO-based multi-factor authentication, biometric technology support ( Windows Hello ), a new default web browser (Microsoft Edge), and a virtual personal assistant Cortana (already in Windows Phone 8.1). Introducing), there are “DirectX 12” / “WDDM 2.0” that improve the functions of graphics and games.

Windows 10 is available in seven editions (“Home”, “Mobile”, “Pro”, “Enterprise”, “Education”, “Mobile Enterprise”, and “IoT Core”). Many users of Windows 7, Windows 8.1, and Windows Phone 8.1 devices will be able to upgrade to the appropriate version of Windows 10 for free for one year after its release. You’ll also receive the latest updates and security patches as soon as they’re released, within what Microsoft calls “Windows as a service.”




Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store