History of the internet

Internet history

What is the internet? (History of the internet)

  1. Internet-related terms
  2. internet history
  3. References

History of the internet! Let’s go back a little to the prehistory of the Internet and imagine that you want to consult your brother who lives in Russia in an urgent and necessary matter. You write a letter, stick stamps, send it by post, and wait for several months for it to arrive, and several more months for the response to arrive, while today you open an Internet application and within fractions of a second it is done. Connection… that’s simply it.

internet permission; This invention that changed the face of the world… what it is, and how it got to what it is today!

What is the internet?

The Internet is a global network of computers and other electronic devices interconnected together, where these devices are connected to each other through multiple routers and servers, and through which all kinds of information can be exchanged such as text, graphics, sounds, video, computer programs, and others.

Over the long history of the Internet; It was never considered the property of anyone, but many organizations around the world cooperate in its operation and development, and in return, the phone companies in each country are responsible for the fiber-optic wires in it that connect this network to each other through which the bulk of the Internet data is transmitted.

Internet-related terms

Before starting to talk about the history of the Internet, it is necessary to clarify some of the terms that will come later. The Internet operates through a packet routing network according to a set of protocols, including Internet Protocol (IP), Transport Control Protocol (TCP), and others.

  • Protocol: A set of rules that define how computers communicate with each other over a network. The Internet Protocol (IP) attaches addresses to data sent from one computer to another in order to determine the correct destination. The Transfer Control Protocol (TCP) is responsible for the reliability of transmission, and it operates on the principle that when data is sent between two computers, the receiving computer is responsible for informing the sending computer of any loss of the transmitted data so that the sending computer can resend it.
  • Packet: The data sent over the Internet is called a message, and this message is fragmented before sending into several parts called packets, the typical packet size ranges between 1000 and 3000 segments, and packets are sent independently of each other so that the Internet protocol determines how to encapsulate the messages.
  • Packet routing network: A network that routes packets from the sending computer to the receiving computer. The Internet is a huge network of specialized computers called routers. The task of each router is to know how to route packets from the source to the destination. A packet contains an area dedicated to its metadata that can be called a header. The IP specifies how network addresses are attached to the packet’s header, and also specifies how routers can forward packets based on the address in the header.

There is also the term “WWW” or “Web” and it is often confused with the Internet, but in fact, the Web is a part of the Internet, like e-mail, video chats, and others.

That is, it can be said that the Web is a system of communication over the Internet that uses hyperlinks and an easy-to-use graphic interface.

Web creator Tim Berners-Lee describes the difference between the Internet and the Web as follows:

“The Web is an imaginary (abstract) space of information. Using the Internet, you can find computers, while using the Web you find various information such as documents, sounds, videos, and others; The methods of linking on the Internet are the cables that connect computers, while the methods of linking on the Web are hypertext links. The Web was created as a result of programs that achieve communication between different computers on the Internet. The Web cannot exist without the Internet, in contrast. It is the web that has made the internet useful because what people really care about is information, not knowledge of computers and cables.”

Internet history

The Internet is not considered an individual invention of one scientist, but rather the fruit of the effort and work of dozens of creative scientists, programmers, and engineers, each of them has developed features and technologies that eventually merged to form what we know today as the Internet.

It can be said that the idea of ​​the Internet is not completely modern, as scientists have already imagined the existence of global information networks long before the technology needed to build the Internet became available. Scientist Nikola Tesla often sang about the idea of ​​a “global wireless system” at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Some pioneering scientists such as Paul Otlet and Vannevar Bush envisioned automated, searchable storage systems in books and media in the 1930s and 1940s.

However, the first practical plans for the Internet did not see the light until the early 1960s, when the scientist Licklider at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology published the idea of ​​a “space network” for computers. Shortly after that, scientists developed the concept of “packet exchange,” which is an effective way to transmit Data is one of the basic foundations on which the Internet is built.

The first viable Internet model appeared in the 1960s, when the ARPANET, short for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, was established with funding from the US Department of Defense. This project used packet exchange technology to enable several computers to communicate on a single network.

Later this technology continued to evolve, especially after the two scientists Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf developed a communication model that defines how data is transferred between different networks, which is the Transfer Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).

In 1983, the ARPANET network began working using these TCP/IP protocols, and since then scientists have begun to form a “network of networks” or what was later known as the Internet, but the Internet did not take its current form until when the scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web or what is known as the World Wide Web. It’s called the web.



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