Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell

Introduction

Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell! Prokaryote and eukaryote are the two types of cells found on Earth’s surface. There are many differences between these two types of cells, but the biggest difference between them is that eukaryotic cells have a distinct nucleus that contains the cell’s genetic material (DNA), while prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus and have free-floating genetic material in the midst of the cytoplasm. In this article, we will learn about the most important points of difference and similarities between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells.

From prokaryotes cells to eukaryotes

All living organisms can be divided into three basic groups: bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. Single-celled organisms present mainly at the level of bacteria and archaea are known as prokaryotes, as these organisms consist of cells of simple structure and small size.

Eukaryotic organisms consist of more complex cells. These organisms can be unicellular or multicellular and include animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Not many people know whether yeasts or fungi are prokaryotes or eukaryotes, in fact, both are eukaryotes and share the structure of their cells with all other eukaryotes.

Eukaryotes evolved at least 2.7 billion years ago, or between 1 and 1.5 billion years of prokaryote evolution, according to the National Institute of Health (NIH). Scientists hypothesize that the nucleus and other properties of eukaryotes may have been formed first after a prokaryotic organism swallowed another, according to the University of Texas.

What is the common denominator between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Although there are many differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes cells, they share some common features, including the following:

  • Presence of the genetic material (DNA): It is the genetic coding that determines all the characteristics of living things.
  • The presence of the plasma membrane: the outer layer that separates the cell from the surrounding environment and acts as a selective barrier for incoming and outgoing substances.
  • The presence of cytoplasmic: a transparent, jelly-like liquid inside the cell that consists mainly of water, salts, and proteins.
  • Ribosomes: These are the organelles that make proteins.

The difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Nucleus / DNA and the DNA: eukaryotic cells nucleus contains a nucleus surrounded nuclear sheath consisting of Gshaian Dhnyen. The nucleus carries the DNA of the eukaryotic cell.

Prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus; Instead, it has a region of a membraneless nucleus (an open part of the cell) that contains floating DNA, according to the University of Washington.

The entire DNA can be found in the cell in the form of individual pieces known as chromosomes. Eukaryotic cells contain many chromosomes that undergo meiosis and mitosis during cell division, while most prokaryotic cells consist of only one circular chromosome.

However, recent studies have shown that some prokaryotes contain up to four linear or circular chromosomes.

Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells: Eukaryotic cells contain many other membrane-bound organelles that are not found in prokaryotic cells.

These include mitochondria (organelles that convert food energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to power biochemical reactions in the cell); The rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (an interconnected network of membrane-coated tubes that transport complex proteins).

The Golgi complex (serves to sort and package proteins needed for secretion); In the case of plant cells, chloroplasts (which carry out photosynthesis). All these organelles are located in the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell.

Ribosomes: In eukaryotic cells, ribosomes are larger and more complex. They can be found in different places in the cell: sometimes they are free in the cytoplasm. Or be connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. Or attached to the nuclear membrane (which covers the nucleus).

In prokaryotic cells, ribosomes diffuse and float freely throughout the cytoplasm. Ribosomes in prokaryotic cells also contain smaller subunits. All ribosomes (in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells) are made up of two subunits — one larger and one smaller. In eukaryotes, scientists have identified these pieces as 60-S and 40-S units. In prokaryotes, ribosomes consist of slightly smaller subunits, called 50-S and 30-S units.

On the negative side of this difference, some bacterial toxins and poliovirus use ribosome differences to their advantage, as they are able to identify and attack the mechanism of translating eukaryotic cells, or the process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins.

Reproduction: Most eukaryotes reproduce sexually (although some protists and unicellular fungi may reproduce through mitosis, which is functionally similar to asexual reproduction).

Prokaryotes reproduce asexually, resulting in the formation of new cells quite similar to the parent cells. Some prokaryotic cells also contain pili, which are sticky, hair-like protrusions used to exchange genetic material during a type of sexual process called “conjugation,” according to biology concepts. Conjugation can occur in bacteria, protists, some algae, and fungi.

Cell walls: Most prokaryotic cells contain a solid cell wall that surrounds the plasma membrane and gives shape to the organism.

Prokaryotic cell walls differ chemically from the eukaryotic cell walls of plant cells, which are mainly composed of cellulose. In bacteria, for example, cell walls consist of peptidoglycans (polysaccharides and amino acids), according to the University of Washington.

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